Thank you to all of the generous researchers who have contributed data to Wordbank!

  1. Researchers publishing or presenting work using data in the Wordbank database must cite the publications linked to that dataset, as shown below in the contributors list. (If there is no linked citation, then no citation for the individual dataset is necessary).
  2. For tracking use of the database and its affiliated tools, please also cite: Frank, M. C., Braginsky, M., Yurovsky, D., & Marchman, V. A. (2016). Wordbank: An open repository for developmental vocabulary data. Journal of Child Language. doi: 10.1017/S0305000916000209. [pdf]
  3. If researchers use more than five datasets, we ask users as a courtesy to cite all data. But in case of severe space limitations, the database as a whole may be cited.
  4. In addition, since the site contains many unpublished English datasets, users of the full English dataset need only cite the Wordbank database. Users of the normative English data (accessed by selecting "normative data only") should cite Fenson et al. (2007) as below.
  5. Some datasets may be marked with a CC BY NC License 4.0 logo. This signifies that these datasets are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. This means these datasets may not be used for commercial purposes but are otherwise free to be used and adapted as long as credit is given.
  6. Since the Wordbank site is dynamic, we recommend that you list the date of download for your data in your manuscript. For example: "In these analyses, item-level responses were extracted from all available forms in English from Wordbank (Frank et al., 2016). Data were downloaded on 3/20/17."

To contribute your data, please email wordbank-contact@stanford.edu.


American Sign Language
  • Diane Anderson, University of California, Berkeley   FormBOne 19

    Anderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2), 83–106.

  • Diane Anderson, University of California, Berkeley   FormC 18

    Anderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2), 83–106.

  • Diane Anderson, University of California, Berkeley   FormA 6

    Anderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2), 83–106.

  • Diane Anderson, University of California, Berkeley   FormBTwo 20

    Anderson, D., & Reilly, J. (2002). The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory: Normative data for American Sign Language. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 7(2), 83–106.

British Sign Language
  • Bencie Woll, University College London   WG 161

    Woolfe, T., Herman, R., Roy, P., & Woll, B. (2010). Early vocabulary development in deaf native signers: a British Sign Language adaptation of the communicative development inventories. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(3), 322-331.

Cantonese
  • Twila Tardif, University of Michigan   WS 987

    Tardif, T., Fletcher, P., Liang, W., & Kaciroti, N. (2009). Early vocabulary development in Mandarin (Putonghua) and Cantonese. Journal of child language, 36(05), 1115-1144.

Croatian
  • Melita Kovacevic, University of Zagreb   WG 250

    Kovacevic, M., Babic, Z., & Brozovic, B. (1996). A Croatian language parent report study: Lexical and grammatical development. Paper presented at the VIIth International Congress for the Study of Child Language, July 1996, Istanbul, Turkey.

  • Melita Kovacevic, University of Zagreb   WS 377

    Kovacevic, M., Babic, Z., & Brozovic, B. (1996). A Croatian language parent report study: Lexical and grammatical development. Paper presented at the VIIth International Congress for the Study of Child Language, July 1996, Istanbul, Turkey.

Czech
  • Filip Smolik, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic   WS 493

    Markova, G., Smolík, F. (2014). What Do You Think? The Relationship between Person Reference and Communication About the Mind in Toddlers. Social Development, 23, 61-79. DOI: 10.1111/sode.12044

Danish
  • Dorthe Bleses, University of Southern Denmark   WG 2398

    Bleses, D., Vach, W., Slott, M., Wehberg, S., Thomsen, P., Madsen, T. & Basbøll, H. (2008). The Danish Communicative Development Inventories: validity and main developmental trends. Journal of Child Language, 35, 619-650.

  • Dorthe Bleses, University of Southern Denmark   WS 3714

    Bleses, D., Vach, W., Slott, M., Wehberg, S., Thomsen, P., Madsen, T. & Basbøll, H. (2008). The Danish Communicative Development Inventories: validity and main developmental trends. Journal of Child Language, 35, 619-650.

English (American)
  • Krista Byers-Heinlein, Concordia University   WG 41

  • Larry Fenson, San Diego State University   WG 1089

    Fenson, L., Marchman, V. A., Thal, D., Dale, P., Reznick, J. S. & Bates, E. (2007). MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: User's Guide and Technical Manual. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

  • Donna Thal, San Diego State University   WS 1306

    Thal, D. J., Marchman, V. A. & Tomblin, J. B. (2013). Late talking toddlers: Characterization and prediction of continued delay. In L. Rescorla & P. Dale (Eds.). Late Talkers: Language Development, Interventions, and Outcomes. Baltimore, MD.: Brookes Publishing.

  • Linda Smith, Indiana University   WS 1619

  • Michael C. Frank, Stanford University   WG 38

  • Donna Thal, San Diego State University   WG 1286

    Thal, D. J., Marchman, V. A. & Tomblin, J. B. (2013). Late talking toddlers: Characterization and prediction of continued delay. In L. Rescorla & P. Dale (Eds.). Late Talkers: Language Development, Interventions, and Outcomes. Baltimore, MD.: Brookes Publishing.

  • Anne Fernald, Stanford University   WS 70

    ​Fernald, A., Marchman, V. A., & Weisleder, A. (2013). SES differences in language processing skill and vocabulary are evident at 18 months. Developmental Science, 16, 234–248. http://doi.org/10.1111/desc.12019

  • Larry Fenson, San Diego State University   WS 1413

    Fenson, L., Marchman, V. A., Thal, D., Dale, P., Reznick, J. S. & Bates, E. (2007). MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories: User's Guide and Technical Manual. 2nd Edition. Baltimore, MD: Brookes Publishing Co.

  • Krista Byers-Heinlein, Concordia University   WS 27

  • Virginia Marchman, Stanford University   WS 1411

English (Australian)
  • Marina Kalashnikova, MARCS Institute for Brain, Behaviour and Development   WS 1520

    Kalashnikova, M., Schwarz, I.-C., & Burnham, D. (2016). OZI: Australian English Communicative Development. First Language, 36, 407-427.

English (British)
  • Philip Dale, University of New Mexico   TEDS Twos 11150

    Dale, P. S., Price, T. S., Bishop, D. V. M., & Plomin, R. (2003). Outcomes of early language delay: I. Predicting persistent and transient difficulties at 3 and 4 years. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 46, 544-560.

  • Philip Dale, University of New Mexico   TEDS Threes 10858

    Dale, P. S., Price, T. S., Bishop, D. V. M., & Plomin, R. (2003). Outcomes of early language delay: I. Predicting persistent and transient difficulties at 3 and 4 years. Journal of Speech-Language-Hearing Research, 46, 544-560.

  • Caroline Floccia, Plymouth University   Oxford CDI 1515

    Floccia, C. (2017). Data collected with the Oxford CDI over a course of 5 years in Plymouth Babylab, UK. With the permission of Plunkett, K. and the Oxford CDI from Hamilton, A., Plunkett, K., & Schafer, G., (2000). Infant vocabulary development assessed with a British Communicative Development Inventory: Lower scores in the UK than the USA. Journal of Child Language, 27, 689-705.

French (French)
  • Christina Bergmann (Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics),
    Anne-Caroline Fievet (Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique (ENS, EHESS, CNRS), Département d’Etudes Cognitives, Ecole Normale Supérieure, PSL Research University)   WG 57

  • Katie Von Holzen, University of Maryland   WS 143

    Von Holzen, K., Nishibayashi, L.-L., & Nazzi, T. (2018). Consonant and vowel processing in word form segmentation : An infant ERP study. Brain Sciences, 8(24), 1–15. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8020024.​

  • Katie Von Holzen, University of Maryland   WG 165

    ​Von Holzen, K., Nishibayashi, L.-L., & Nazzi, T. (2018). Consonant and vowel processing in word form segmentation : An infant ERP study. Brain Sciences, 8(24), 1–15. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8020024.

  • Sophie Kern, Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS)   WS 522

French (Quebecois)
  • Natacha Trudeau, Université de Montréal   WS 827

    Trudeau, N., & Sutton, A. (2011). Expressive vocabulary and early grammar of 16-to 30-month-old children acquiring Quebec French. First Language, 0142723711410828.

  • Natacha Trudeau, Université de Montréal   WG 537

    Boudreault, M. C., Cabirol, E. A., Poulin-Dubois, D., Sutton, A., & Trudeau, N. (2007). MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories: Validity and preliminary normative data. La Revue d’orthophonie et d’audiologie, 31(1), 27-37.

German
  • Gisela Szagun, University College London   WS 1181

    Szagun, G., Stumper, B. & Schramm, A.S. (2009). Fragebogen zur frühkindlichen Sprachentwicklung (FRAKIS) und FRAKIS-K (Kurzform). Frankfurt: Pearson Assessment.

Greek (Cypriot)
  • Kleanthes K. Grohmann, University of Cyprus   WS 176

    Taxitari, Loukia, Maria Kambanaros & Kleanthes K. Grohmann. 2015. ‘A Cypriot Greek Adaptation of the CDI: Early Production of Translation Equivalents in a Bi(dia)lectal Context’. Journal of Greek Linguistics 15, 1–24.

Hebrew
  • Hila Gendler Shalev, Tel-Aviv University   WS 480

  • Hila Gendler Shalev, Tel-Aviv University   WG 62

    Gendler-Shalev, H. (2005). תירבעל HCDI-WG םירוה ןולאש תמאתה.

Italian
  • Christina Caselli, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies   WS 752

    Caselli, M. C., Bates, E., Casadio, P., Fenson, J., Fenson, L., Sanderl, L., & Weir, J. (1995). A cross-linguistic study of early lexical development. Cognitive Development, 10(2), 159-199.

  • Christina Caselli, Institute of Cognitive Sciences and Technologies   WG 648

    Caselli, M. C., Rinaldi, P., Stefanini, S., & Volterra, V. (2012). Early action and gesture 'vocabulary' and its relation with word comprehension and production. Child Development, 83(2), 526-542.

Kigiriama
  • Katie Alcock, Lancaster University   WG 132

    Alcock, K., Rimba, K., Holding, P., Kitsao-Wekulo, P., Abubakar, A., Newton, C.R.J.C. (2015) Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages. Journal of Child Language, 42, 763-785.

  • Katie Alcock, Lancaster University   WS 100

    Alcock, K., Rimba, K., Holding, P., Kitsao-Wekulo, P., Abubakar, A., Newton, C.R.J.C. (2015) Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages. Journal of Child Language, 42, 763-785.

Kiswahili
  • Katie Alcock, Lancaster University   WG 51

    Alcock, K., Rimba, K., Holding, P., Kitsao-Wekulo, P., Abubakar, A., Newton, C.R.J.C. (2015) Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages. Journal of Child Language, 42, 763-785.

  • Katie Alcock, Lancaster University   WS 90

    Alcock, K., Rimba, K., Holding, P., Kitsao-Wekulo, P., Abubakar, A., Newton, C.R.J.C. (2015) Developmental inventories using illiterate parents as informants: Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) adaptation for two Kenyan languages. Journal of Child Language, 42, 763-785.

Korean
  • Dongsun Yim, Ewha Womans University   WG 55

  • Soyeong Pae, Hallym University   WG 563 CC BY NC License 4.0

    ​Pae, S., & Kwak, K. (2011). Korean MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (K M-B CDI). Seoul: Mindpress.

  • Dongsun Yim, Ewha Womans University   WS 238

  • Soyeong Pae, Hallym University   WS 1137 CC BY NC License 4.0

    ​Pae, S., & Kwak, K. (2011). Korean MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventories (K M-B CDI). Seoul: Mindpress.

Latvian
  • Olga Urek, The Arctic University of Norway   WS 500

    Urek, Olga, Anna Vulāne, Roberts Darģis, Agrita Tauriņa, Tija Zīriņa, Hanne Gram Simonsen (to appear) Latvian CDI: methodology, developmental trends and cross-linguistic comparison.

  • Olga Urek, The Arctic University of Norway   WG 183

    Urek, Olga, Anna Vulāne, Roberts Darģis, Agrita Tauriņa, Tija Zīriņa, Hanne Gram Simonsen (to appear) Latvian CDI: methodology, developmental trends and cross-linguistic comparison.

Mandarin (Beijing)
  • Ping Li, Pennsylvania State University   TC 652

    Hao, M., Shu, H., Xing, A., & Li, P. (2008). Early vocabulary inventory for Mandarin Chinese. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 728-733.

  • Twila Tardif, University of Michigan   WS 1056

    Tardif, T., Fletcher, P., Liang, W., & Kaciroti, N. (2009). Early vocabulary development in Mandarin (Putonghua) and Cantonese. Journal of child language, 36(05), 1115-1144.

  • Ping Li, Pennsylvania State University   IC 230

    Hao, M., Shu, H., Xing, A., & Li, P. (2008). Early vocabulary inventory for Mandarin Chinese. Behavior Research Methods, 40, 728-733.

Mandarin (Taiwanese)
  • Huei-Mei Liu, National Taiwan Normal University   WS 1897

    Liu, H. M., & Tsao, F. M. (2010). The standardization and application of Mandarin-Chinese communicative developmental inventory for infants and toddlers. Formosa Journal of Mental Health, (4)23, 503-534. doi: 10.30074/CJMH.201012.0001
    Liu, H. M., & Chen, Y. (2015). Developmental changes in the content and composition of early expressive vocabulary in Mandarin-speaking infants and toddlers. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 24(7), 217-242. doi: 10.6251/BEP.20150205

  • Huei-Mei Liu, National Taiwan Normal University   WG 757

    Liu, H. M., & Tsao, F. M. (2010). The standardization and application of Mandarin-Chinese communicative developmental inventory for infants and toddlers. Formosa Journal of Mental Health, (4)23, 503-534. doi: 10.30074/CJMH.201012.0001
    Liu, H. M., & Chen, Y. (2015). Developmental changes in the content and composition of early expressive vocabulary in Mandarin-speaking infants and toddlers. Bulletin of Educational Psychology, 24(7), 217-242. doi: 10.6251/BEP.20150205

Norwegian
  • Hanne Simonsen and Kristian Kristoffersen, University of Oslo   WS 9304

    Simonsen, H. G., Kristoffersen, K. E., Bleses, D., Wehberg, S., & Jørgensen, R. N. (2014). The Norwegian Communicative Development Inventories: Reliability, main developmental trends and gender differences. First Language, 34(1), 3-23. DOI: 10.1177/0142723713510997

  • Hanne Simonsen and Kristian Kristoffersen, University of Oslo   WG 2926

    Simonsen, H. G., Kristoffersen, K. E., Bleses, D., Wehberg, S., & Jørgensen, R. N. (2014). The Norwegian Communicative Development Inventories: Reliability, main developmental trends and gender differences. First Language, 34(1), 3-23. DOI: 10.1177/0142723713510997

Portuguese (European)
  • Irene Cadime, University of Minho   WS 3012

  • Irene Cadime, University of Minho   WG 1314

Russian
  • Stella Ceytlin, SPb Russian Pedagogical University   WS 1037

    М.Б. Елисеева, Е.А. Вершинина. Некоторые нормативы речевого развития детей от 18 до 36 месяцев (по материалам МакАртуровского опросника) // Проблемы онтолингвистики – 2009. Материалы международной конференции 17-19 июбня 2009 г. Санкт-Петербург, С.72-78

  • Stella Ceytlin, SPb Russian Pedagogical University   WG 768

    Е.А.Вершинина, М.Б. Елисеева, Т.С. Лаврова, В.Л. Рыскина, С.Н. Цейтлин. Некоторые нормативы речевого развития детей от 8 до 18 месяцев// Специальное образование: традиции и инновации: Сборник научно-методических трудов с международным участием. — СПб.: Изд-во РГПУ им. А. И. Герцена, 2011.

Slovak
  • Svetlana Kapalková, Comenius University   WS 1065

  • Svetlana Kapalková, Comenius University   WG 657

Spanish (European)
  • Alexandra Karousou, Democritus University of Thrace   WS 593

    López Ornat, S., Gallego, C., Gallo, P., Karousou, A., Mariscal, S., & Martínez, M. (2005). MacArthur: Inventario de desarrollo comunicativo. Manual y Cuadernillos. Madrid, TEA Ediciones. ISBN: 84-7174- 820-7

  • Alexandra Karousou, Democritus University of Thrace   WG 412

    ​López Ornat, S., Gallego, C., Gallo, P., Karousou, A., Mariscal, S., & Martínez, M. (2005). MacArthur: Inventario de desarrollo comunicativo. Manual y Cuadernillos. Madrid, TEA Ediciones. ISBN: 84-7174- 820-7

Spanish (Mexican)
  • Donna Jackson-Maldonado, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro   WS 1094

    Jackson-Maldonado, D., Thal, D., Marchman, V., Newton, T., Fenson, L, & Conboy, B. (2003). MacArthur Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas. User´s Guide and Technical Manual. Brookes, Baltimore.

  • Anne Fernald, Stanford University   WG 55

    ​Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24, 2143–2152. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613488145

  • Donna Jackson-Maldonado, Universidad Autónoma de Querétaro   WG 778

    Jackson-Maldonado, D., Thal, D., Marchman, V., Newton, T., Fenson, L, & Conboy, B. (2003). MacArthur Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas. User´s Guide and Technical Manual. Brookes, Baltimore.

  • Anne Fernald, Stanford University   WS 80

    ​Weisleder, A., & Fernald, A. (2013). Talking to children matters: Early language experience strengthens processing and builds vocabulary. Psychological Science, 24, 2143–2152. http://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613488145

Swedish
  • Mårten Eriksson, University of Gävle   WG 474

    Eriksson, M., & Berglund, E. (2002). Instruments, scoring manual and percentile levels of the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory, SECDI. (FoU-Rapport 17). Gävle, Sweden: Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.

  • Mårten Eriksson, University of Gävle   WS 900

    Eriksson, M., & Berglund, E. (2002). Instruments, scoring manual and percentile levels of the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory, SECDI. (FoU-Rapport 17). Gävle, Sweden: Institutionen för pedagogik, didaktik och psykologi.

Turkish
  • Aylin Küntay, Koç University   WS 2422

    Acarlar, F., Aksu-Koç, A., Küntay, A.C., Maviş, İ., Sofu, H., Topbaş, S., Turan, F. (2009). Adapting MB-CDI to Turkish: The first phase. In S. Ay, Ö. Aydın., İ. Ergenç, S. Gökmen, S. İşsever, and D. Peçenel (Eds.) Essays on Turkish linguistics: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Turkish Linguistics, August 6-8, 2008. Harrassowitz Verlag: Wiesbaden, Germany.

  • Aylin Küntay, Koç University   WG 1115

    Acarlar, F., Aksu-Koç, A., Küntay, A.C., Maviş, İ., Sofu, H., Topbaş, S., Turan, F. (2009). Adapting MB-CDI to Turkish: The first phase. In S. Ay, Ö. Aydın., İ. Ergenç, S. Gökmen, S. İşsever, and D. Peçenel (Eds.) Essays on Turkish linguistics: Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Turkish Linguistics, August 6-8, 2008. Harrassowitz Verlag: Wiesbaden, Germany.